Is it Tomato Fruit or vegetable?

tomato fruit or vegetable

Either way, Tomato is delicious.

Tomato is an edible berry of the plant Solanum Lycopersicum, commonly known as the tomato plant. This species originated in western South America and Central America, tomatoes are an important source of umami. Tomatoes can be eaten raw or cooked in a variety of ways and are used in many dishes, sauces, salads, and drinks.

Without a doubt, tomatoes are one of the most versatile foods around, and summer salads are just as comfortable as marinara sauce. But are tomatoes a fruit? Or are you eating vegetables? There are tomatoes for each color, suitable for all tastes. Cherry, steak, traditional, sweet and sour, all tomatoes, all delicious. As a bonus, they are also one of the easiest vegetables to grow at home. Or the simplest fruit? Good tomatoes taste like sunlight, that should be all we need to know. However, it turns out that defining food as fruit or vegetable is not as easy as it looks.

Are tomatoes fruits or vegetables?

Farmers, chefs, and lawyers all have different answers to this question. This may be easy for us. Do you eat at noon? vegetable. Do you eat for dessert? fruits! But it’s not easy. Fruits and vegetables have legal and scientific definitions. Tomatoes are formed from flowers and contain seeds, which meets the scientific definition of fruit. Therefore, in botany, tomatoes are fruits. But the way we eat and treat them in cooking means that they also belong to the legal category of vegetables.

Why are tomatoes fruit?

To answer the question “Is the tomato a fruit?”, Let’s first look at the definition of fruit. According to Merriam-Webster, fruits are “edible reproductive bodies of seed plants, especially plants with sweet pulp.” Real tomato plants are seed plants that can grow the red edible tomatoes that people know and love. Tomatoes are not as sweet as other fruits (such as peaches), but not as bitter as some vegetables (brussels sprouts). With this definition in mind, everything from pepper to cucumber is fruit, but carrots and potatoes are not. An interesting fact is that potatoes are distant relatives of tomatoes. However, as a root vegetable, it does not meet the definition of “vine fruit” that bears tomatoes.

Why are tomatoes vegetables?

Tomato Fruit or Vegetable

Although tomatoes are scientifically fruits, they are legally classified as vegetables. This may seem surprising, but in reality, there are far more vegetable categories than you might think. According to Merriam-Webster, vegetables are “herbs that are usually grown as an edible part and are usually eaten as part of the diet.” This means that the vegetable category includes all plant parts such as roots, leaves, and stems. Fruits, on the other hand, are only part of the seed-carrying plant. Beets, spinach, and broccoli are all vegetables, so it’s best to eat them according to the season.

By this definition, tomatoes are not vegetables. So are tomatoes a fruit? Not perfect. In 1893, Congress passed a tariff bill that imposes a 10% tax on all vegetables. Therefore, to avoid paying fees, merchants claim that tomatoes are fruits. The Supreme Court’s ruling, in this case, stated that for “trade and commercial purposes”, tomatoes should be classified as vegetables rather than fruits because they are cooked by chefs and people eat like vegetables. This means that legally speaking, tomatoes are vegetables.

Are tomatoes fruits? Are tomatoes vegetables?

Tomatoes contain many ingredients such as essential fiber, vitamins, nutrients, and antioxidants. You need to consume them regularly along with all the other favorite fruits and vegetables. As far as the exact definition is concerned, it doesn’t matter. After all, the World Health Organization recommends that everyone eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day for reasons. They are equally beneficial and equally necessary for the functioning of our body.

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Harvard scientists have created a gene-editing tool comparable to CRISPR

Harvard scientists have created a gene-editing tool comparable to CRISPR

What are gene-editing and CRISPR-Cas9?

In term of gene-editing (also known as genetic editing) is a group of technologies that allow scientists to modify the DNA of an organism. These techniques allow you to add, remove, or modify genetic material at specific locations in the genome. Several genome editing methods have been developed.

The latest is called CRISPR-Cas9, an abbreviation for a cluster of regularly spaced short palindrome repeats and CRISPR-related protein 9. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has created a lot of excitement in the scientific community for being faster, cheaper, and more. This is more accurate and efficient than other existing genome editing methods.

CRISPR-Cas9 applies a naturally occurring genome editing system in bacteria. Bacteria capture the DNA fragments of the invading virus and use them to create DNA fragments called CRISPR arrays. CRISPR arrays allow bacteria to “remember” viruses (or closely related viruses).

When the virus attacks again, the bacterium produces RNA fragments from the CRISPR array to target the virus’s DNA. The bacterium then uses Cas9 or a similar enzyme to cleave the DNA, thereby inactivating the virus.

the gene-editing tool uses a bacterial DNA fragment called Retrons.

Harvard scientists have created a gene-editing tool comparable to CRISPR

gene-editing tool comparable to CRISPR

Researchers at Harvard’s Wise Bio-Inspired Engineering Institute have created a new gene-editing tool that allows scientists to perform millions of gene experiments simultaneously. They call it Retron Library Recombineering (RLR) technology, which uses a bacterial DNA fragment called Retrons to produce a single-strand DNA fragment.

From a gene-editing perspective, CRISPR-Cas9 may be the most famous technology today. For the past few years, it has created a sensation in the scientific community and has provided researchers with the tools they need to easily alter their DNA sequences. It is more accurate than previously used techniques and has a wide range of potential uses, including life-saving treatments for a variety of illnesses.

However, this tool has some major limitations. Providing large quantities of CRISPR-Cas9 material can be difficult, but it is still a matter of research and experimentation. In addition, the Cas9 enzyme (the molecule “scissors” involved in DNA strand cleavage) often cleaves non-target sites, so the mechanism of this technique can be toxic to cells.

Harvard scientists have created a gene-editing tool comparable to CRISPR

man who created a gene-editing tool comparable to CRISPR

CRISPR-Cas9 physically cleaves DNA during the repair process and integrates the mutant sequence into its genome. At the same time, reverse transcription can introduce the mutated DNA strand into the replication cell, resulting in the strand being integrated into the DNA of the daughter cell.

In addition, reverse transcriptase can be used as a “barcode” or “name tag”, allowing scientists to track individuals in a bacterial pool. This means that it can be used for genome editing without damaging the natural DNA and can be used to perform multiple experiments with large mixtures.

The scientist at the Wyss Institute is E. An RLR test was performed on coli and found that 90% of the population added the Retron sequence after some adjustments. They were also able to prove how useful it is in large-scale genetic experiments. In their testing process, we were able to find antibiotic-resistant mutations in E. coli by sequencing retrospective barcodes instead of sequencing individual mutants, accelerating the process.

Max Schubert, the co-lead author of the study, explains:

Harvard scientists have created a gene-editing tool comparable to CRISPR

gene-editing tool comparable to CRISPR

RLR allows us to do things that CRISPR cannot do. Randomly chop the bacterial genome, convert these gene fragments into single-stranded DNA on the fly, and use them to create millions of sequences. Screening at the same time. RLR is a simpler and easier way: Using flexible gene-editing tools, you can perform very multiple experiments, eliminating the toxicity commonly found in CRISPR and mutating at the genomic level Improves the ability of researchers to explore …

For a long time, CRISPR has been seen as a strange thing that bacteria do, and understanding how to use CRISPR for genomic engineering has changed the world. Reverse transcription is another innovation in bacteria, and It may bring some significant improvements. “

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Scientists Find Ways to Get rid of Bacterial Contamination Microplastics
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Scientists Find Ways to Get rid of Bacterial Contamination Microplastic
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Microplastics | Scientists Find Ways to Get rid of Bacterial Contamination

Scientists Find Ways to Get rid of Bacterial Contamination Microplastics

The viscosity of the bacteria used to create the microbial web can trap Microplastics in water and form recyclable spots.

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    Microbiologists have devised sustainable ways to remove contaminated microplastics from the environment. They want to use bacteria to do this.

    Bacteria naturally collect and attach to the surface, producing a sticky substance called a “biofilm.” For example, if you brush your teeth every morning to remove plaque, you will see bacteria. Researchers at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) want to take advantage of the properties of this sticky bacterium to create a band-shaped microbial network that can capture microplastics in sewage and form easy-to-handle and recyclable spots. I think.

    The findings presented at the annual meeting of the Microbiology Society on Wednesday are still preliminary, but in the long run, the present invention can sustain plastic pollution levels simply by using naturally occurring substances. It can pave the way for significant reductions.

    Sylvia Lang Liu, a PolyU microbiology researcher and lead researcher on the project, said:

    Scientists Find Ways to Get rid of Bacterial Contamination Microplastics
    Scientists Find Ways to Get rid of Bacterial Contamination Microplastics

    Microplastics are usually pieces of plastic smaller than 5 mm and are mistaken during manufacturing and disassembly (such as grocery bags and water bottles) or daily activities (such as cleaning synthetic clothing (such as nylon) and using personal care products). Will be released. There are scrub beads. In the environment.

    They are small, but they are at high risk of posting to the environment. Due to its low biodegradability, microplastics adhere for long periods of time, absorbing and accumulating toxic chemicals. They disperse in wastewater and the ocean, ultimately endangering marine animals that eat them, and eventually falling into the food chain, endangering human health. According to data from the International Maritime Organization, microplastics were found in more than 114 species of aquatic organisms in 2018, and microplastics were found in salts, lettuce, apples, etc.

    However, there is no sustainable, all-purpose way to eliminate microplastics.

    Scientists Find Ways to Get rid of Bacterial Contamination Microplastics

    Through this research, Liu’s team designed a bacterial biofilm made of a bacterium called Pseudomonas aeruginosa that can fix and bind fraudulent microplastics floating in water. These microbial nets capture and collect microplastics and sink them to the bottom. Second, thanks to the use of the “capture and release mechanism” of biofilm diffusion genes, researchers can find that they are ready to release microplastics from bacterial traps and recycle large amounts of microplastics.

    Dr. Joanna Sadler, a researcher at St. John’s Land, who was not involved in the study, said: “This is a truly innovative and exciting application of biofilm engineering to solve the plastic pollution crisis.” Liu and his colleagues have demonstrated an excellent solution to this problem. This has great potential to further develop into actual wastewater treatment technology.

    However, the experiment is still preliminary. A proof-of-concept test in a controlled laboratory environment, rather than in the ocean or sewer, using a strain of “Pseudomonas aeruginosa“, a type of human disease. Carrying bacteria cannot be used in large projects. However, researchers are confident that they can replicate this method to directly find and proceed from the bacteria that form natural biofilms in sewage and other aquatic environments.

    “This is an interesting development in the capture of microplastics,” said Dr. Nicholas Tucker, senior lecturer in molecular microbiology at the University of Strathclyde. “Is it scalable? Sex will be interesting.” According to Tucker, more research is needed on the types of surfaces on which biofilms grow.

    However, such research provides many uses of microbial biotechnology and good examples of the great achievements that microorganisms can achieve. Tucker said: “In general, this indicates that microorganisms can and will play a role at all stages of the plastic life cycle.”

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    What is Tissue Culture and what are the applications of Tissue Culture?

    Tissue Culture
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      What is Tissue Culture?

      Tissue culture is a biological research method in which tissue pieces of animals and plants are transferred to an artificial environment to survive and function. Cultured tissue can consist of a single cell, group of cells, or all or part of an organ. Cells in culture can proliferate. Changes in size, morphology, or function; exhibiting special activity (eg, muscle cells can contract) or interacting with other cells.

      Historical Developments in 1885

      Tissue Culture
      Tissue Culture

      In 1885, German zoologist Wilhelm Roux attempted tissue culture early. He cultured the tissue from chicken embryos in a warm salt solution. However, the first real success was in 1907, when American zoologist Ross G. Harrison showed the growth of frog neuronal processes in the coagulation of lymph. Later, French surgeon Alexis Carrel and his assistant Montrose Burrows improved Harrison’s technique and reported their first progress in a series of treatises published in 1910-11. Carrel and Burroughs coined the term tissue culture and defined this concept.

      Since then, many experimenters have succeeded in using a variety of body fluids (lymph, serum, plasma, tissue extracts, etc.) as media for culturing animal cells. In the 1980s and 1990s, various methods were developed to enable researchers to successfully culture mammalian embryonic stem cells under artificial conditions. These breakthroughs ultimately enabled the establishment and maintenance of human embryonic stem cell lines, facilitated researchers’ understanding of human biology, and significantly facilitated advances in therapeutic and regenerative medicine.

      Culture Environments

      Tissue Culture
      Tissue Culture

      Cells can grow in biologically induced media such as serum or tissue extracts, chemically defined synthetic media, or a mixture of the two. The medium should contain the proper proportions of nutrients needed by the cells under study and should be properly acidic or alkaline. Cultures typically grow as a monolayer of cells on a glass or plastic surface, or as a suspension in a liquid or semi-solid medium.

      To start culturing, disperse a small portion of the tissue sample on or in the medium and incubate the culture flask, tube, or culture plate at a temperature usually close to the normal environment of the tissue. Keep sterile to prevent microbial contamination. Cultures may begin with a single cell, resulting in a unified biological population called a clone. Single cells usually colonize within 10-14 days under culture conditions.

      Primary Cultures And Established Cell Lines

      There are two main types of culture. Primary (lethal) culture and established (immortal) cell line culture. Primary cultures consist of normal cells, tissues, or organs that have been resected directly from biopsy-collected tissue. Primary culture is advantageous because it basically mimics the natural function of the cell, tissue, or organ under study. However, the longer the sample is cultured, the more mutations will accumulate in the sample, which can lead to changes in chromosomal structure and cell function.

      In addition, Aboriginal culture is usually deadly. Because cells go through an aging process, they can only proliferate for 50 to 100 generations, after which they slow down significantly. The point at which cells in primary culture stop growing or undergo replication aging indicates the so-called Hayflick limit (named after its discoverer, American microbiologist Leonard Hayflick).

      In contrast, established cell lines can continue indefinitely. Such cell lines can usually be derived from a patient’s tumor biopsy or can be generated from mutated primary cells that allow Hayflick limits to be overcome and replication to continue. Like cells in primary culture, cells of established lineage can accumulate mutations over time, which can change their properties. Therefore, in order for researchers in different laboratories to compare the results of experiments using the same cell line, it is necessary to confirm the identity of the cells used. Cell identity is verified through a process called validation in which the DNA profile of cultured cells is compared to a known or standard profile of the cell line.

      Processing Of Cultured Cells And Tissues

      Tissue Culture
      Tissue Culture

      Living cultures can be examined directly under a microscope or observed in photographs or movies taken under a microscope. Cells, tissues, and organs can also be killed, fixed (preserved), and stained for further examination. After fixation, the sample can be embedded (for example, in resin) and cut into thin slices to reveal other details under a light microscope or electron microscope.

      Cells in tissue culture undergo extensive experimental processing. For example, viruses, drugs, hormones, vitamins, pathogenic microorganisms, or chemicals suspected of being carcinogenic can be added to the culture. Scientists then look at cells for changes in specific molecules, such as overall changes in cell behavior or function, or changes in the expression of specific proteins or genes.

       

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